Weed Management Methods on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L)

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Bread Wheat, Weeds Control Methods, Weed Infestation
Damtew Atnafu
Weed infestation is one of the major biotic constraints in wheat production. Wheat is infested with diverse type of weed flora, as it is grown under diverse agro climatic conditions, different cropping sequence, and tillage irrigation regimes. The highly diverse agriculture and fanning systems are beset with different types of weed problems. Weeds cause 10-80% crop yield losses besides impairing product quality and causing health and environmental hazards. Invasive alien weeds are a major constraint to agriculture, forestry and aquatic environment. Weed infestation affecting crop production, quality of product and income of farmers. The yield losses due to weeds vary depending on the weed species, their density and environmental factors. Overview weeds management method to control weed infestation and tackle crop production in wheat grow areas. Among weeds, Phalaris minor Retz. is single most dominant grassy weed in Ethiopia plains causing significant yield losses. For controlling weeds in wheat, growers mostly rely on herbicides due to cost and time effectiveness. However, the herbicides are after few years weeds are resistance and hazards to ecosystems for this reason, use of integrated weed management methods, those non-chemical weed management tactics should be adopted in integrated with chemicals (like herbicide mixture and rotation, optimum spray time, dose and methods). Some of the non-chemical agronomic strategies like tillage, sowing time, sowing methods, competitive crop cultivars, higher crop density, closer spacing, irrigation, fertilization, crop rotation and sanitation practices (weed-free crop seeds and manure) can be adjusted and adopted in such a manner that they provide the competitive edge to the crop over weeds. On this Review on weed management in Ethiopia is mostly centered on herbicide efficacy. Herbicides applied alone or in combinations, have been regarded as essential tools in the effective management of weeds in different-ecosystems. IWM, which includes preventative, mechanical, cultural, chemical and biological methods, is advocated in crop production systems as well as aquatic and forest ecosystems. IWM method is most effective weed infestation control, increasing crops yield by reduces yield loss and it is save human and environment hazards.